|Caste and Capitalism in Colonial India|
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acci (Tm): Nakarattar married woman.
accimar panam (Tm): accounting category for funds invested or deposited in a Nakarattar firm by a proprietor's in-laws in conformity with a dowry agreement at the time of his marriage. The funds are usually held in trust for educational or dowry expenses of the proprietor's daughter.
adathi (Tm): elite "parent" banker.
adathi kadai panam (Tm): accounting category for deposits from Nakarattar
adathis ; also simply adathi panam .
adhaya (Sk): credit or income entry in an account (cf. varavu ).
adrstartha (Sk): invisible, extramundane goal of action.
aduthal (Tm): subordinate staff in a large Nakarattar banking agency; literally, "next people" (i.e., next after the first assistant [mudalal ] to a Nakarattar agent [melal ]).
agraharam (Sk): Brahman village, neighborhood, or street.
ainthugai (reportedly): a Nakarattar general ledger.
Aippaci (Tm): October-November.
amman (Tm): goddess.
ampalakkarar (Tm): 1. one who holds an ampalam ; thus, a village headman. 2. a Kallar subcaste living near Melur, east of Madurai.
ampalam (Tm): a share in village resources held by a dominant family in a village.
Ani (Tm): June-July.
anna (Ur): one-sixteenth of a rupee.
anpu (Tm): love, devotion.
anuloma (Sk): in an unnatural order; as applied to marriage, an intercaste marriage in which the husband is member of a higher-ranking caste than the wife (cf. pratiloma ).
arai (Tm): 1. room. 2. Nakarattar bank office (cf. kitangi ).
Arapattayankal (Tm): name of Nakarattar six deeds of gift and two additional documents, ca. 1600-1800, stored at Palani Temple; literally, "six deeds."
arccanai (Sk): offering of flowers, betel, and saffron, accompanied by recitation of the sacred names of the deity, on behalf of the donor.
arrack (Ar): palm wine.
arze (Ur): petition.
asti vari (Tm): temple tithe on wealthy people.
atati (Tm). See adathi .
atati katai panam (Tm). See adathi kadai panam .
Ati (Tm): July-August.
atinnam (Sk): Saivite seminary or monastery (synonym: matam ).
atuttal (Tm). See aduthal .
Avani (Tm): August-September.
avi (Tm): spirit of the dead.
Ayyanar (Tm): village guardian god.
Brahman (Sk): highest ranking varna category, traditionally comprising priests and scholars.
camaiyalkaran (Tm): cook.
caman (Tm): thing, object, item.
campantippuram (Tm): in-law.
cankam (Tm). See sangam .
catunkukkarar (Tm): groom's sisters in ceremonial roles at a wedding; literally, "ceremony-doers".
cervaikkarar (Tm): 1. Pudukottai Kallar noble or army commander. 2. Telugu caste in Tamil Nadu.
Chetti (Tm): 1. occupational title for merchant. 2. name of South Indian caste cluster.
Chettiar (Tm): honorific form of Chetti .
Chettinad (Tm): homeland of the Nakarattars (Nattukottai Chettiars).
Chittirai (Tm): April-May.
Chola (Tm): 1. medieval Tamil dynasty, ca. 900-1300 A.D. 2. classical Tamil dynasty, ca. 250 B.C. -700 A.D.
choultry, chattiram (Tm): 1. a place for reception and public business. 2. a pilgrim rest house (synonym: vituti ).
cinna (Tm): small, unimportant, younger (cf. periya ).
cir (Tm): dowry gifts or prestations from bride's family to groom's family; literally, "fame, glory, beauty" (synonym: curul ).
cir tanam (Tm): affinal prestation of money as part of a dowry (cir ); literally, "gift that brings fame, glory, beauty" (cf. stri dhanam ).
cir varicai (Tm): affinal prestation of clothing and household items as part of dowry (cir ); literally, "rows of fame, glory, beauty."
Cola (Tm). See chola .
Collector (AI): chief administrative officer in an Indian district, also holding magisterial powers.
contakkarar (Tm): kin.
conta tavanai panam (Tm). See sontha thavanai panam .
crore (Hn): a unit of 10 million; 100 lakhs.
curul (Tm). See cir .
cutcherry, kachahri (Ur): headquarters or central office of zamindari administration.
Deepavali (Hn): festival of lights in late October or early November.
davam (Tm). See teyvam .
devastanam (Sk): a place or establishment of the gods; thus, property of a temple.
devata (Tm). See teyvata .
dharma (Sk): 1. moral code for an individual, righteousness. 2. the proper order of the universe.
dharma karta (Sk): protector of a temple, executive officer.
dharsan (Sk): 1. a form of worship. 2. an auspicious sight; literally, a "glimpse."
dharsan hundi (Tm): "sight" hundi , demand draft (cf. naduppu hundi ).
drstartha (Sk): visible, tangible goal of action.
dubash (Tel): Indian middleman for European traders in eighteenth- and nine-teenth-century Madras; literally, a person who speaks two languages (dobashi ).
etti (Tm): title for an important merchant during Tamil classical (Sangam) period.
fasli, fusli (Ur): the harvest year, beginning July 1st; add 590 to the fasli year to approximate the year Anno Domini.
gomasta (Ur): 1. clerk-accountant. 2. a native accountant in the Revenue Department. 3. an officer employed by a Zamindar to collect rents.
gopuram (Tm). See kopuram .
gotra (Sk): typically Brahman, exogamous clan.
Goundar (Tm): Vellalar subcaste, traditionally comprising cultivators and landowners and residing primarily in Coimbatore and Salem.
grama deyvam (Tm): village deity.
gramam (Tm): village.
guna (Sk): humoral essence, quality (synonym: kunam ).
guru (Sk): religious preceptor.
hoozoor, huzur (Ur): 1. the presence; the presence of superior authority such as a judge or a collector. 2. a place of authority such as an office or court.
hundi (Ur): bill of exchange (synonym: teep ).
hundial (Tm): temple donation box.
inam (Ur): tax-free land given for services to king or temple. There are many kinds of inam including a maniyam (for a village servant), a savaram (for a revenue officer), an agraharam (for Brahmans), and a devadasi inam (for temple prostitutes).
jajmani (Hn): a village system of rights and obligations for different status positions connecting landowning village patrons (jajmans ) with clients who performservices for a share of the crop.
jati (Sk): 1. caste. 2. category, kind, species, etc.
jati varalaru (Tm): caste history.
jivika (Sk): occupation, livelihood (synonym: tolil ).
kadai (Tm): shop.
kadai kanakku : demand deposit account similar to a checking account; literally, "shop account."
Kaikkolar (Tm): Tamil caste of weavers.
kaimattu panam (Tm): undocumented loan between local Nakarattar bankers; literally, "hand money."
kalam (Tm): a measure of grain; half a bag; in the case of paddy, about 63.7 lbs.
Kallar (Tm): during the precolonial era, a Tamil caste of warriors and, according to colonial classification, robbers; now primarily cultivators.
kalutturu (Tm): gold necklace presented to Nakarattar bride by groom's family.
kalyanam (Tm): marriage.
kanakku (Tm): account.
kandu kisti (Tm): small loan advanced to petty traders with interest charged in advance.
kani (Tm): land measure, about 1.33 acres.
kaniyacci (Tm): hereditary right to land or office.
kaniyaccikkarar (Tm): one who holds kaniyacci rights.
kanji (Tm): rice porridge.
karai (Tm): Pudukottai Kallar lineage; literally, "river bank, boundary, border" (cf. pattappeyar ).
karma (Sk): 1. action. 2. fate resulting from action.
karmam (Tm). See karma .
Kartikai (Tm): November-December.
karyakkarar (Tm): temple trustee; literally, "doer."
katai (Tm). See kadai.
katai kanakku (Tm). See kadai kanakku .
kattalai (Tm): endowment.
kattu kanakkuppillai (Tm): "field staff" of Nakarattar banking agency ("kattu " may be an AI spelling of katu [Tm], for country or uncultivated land; cf. natu ).
kavati (Tm): shoulder pole used to carry religious offerings on a pilgrimage.
Kavuntar (also KavuNTar : Beck 1972). See Goundar .
kilivaram (Tm): landowner's (raiyat's ) share of the land's produce after taxes; literally, "lower share" (cf. melvaram ).
kiramam (Tm). See gramam .
kirani (reportedly): court clerk.
kitangi (Tm): Nakarattar bank office; cf. arai .
kittanki (Tm). See kitangi .
Komati Chetti (Tel): Telugu merchant caste.
Konar (Tm): Tamil caste of cattle herders and shepherds, residing partly in Chettinad.
kopuram (Tm): temple tower.
kovil (Tm): 1. temple. 2. palace.
kovil panam (Tm): accounting category for deposits from temples.
kovil pankali (Tm): member of Nakarattar temple clan; literally, "shareholder in the temple."
Kshatriya (Sk): second ranked varna category, traditionally kings and warriors.
kula (Sk): lineage.
kulam (Tm). See kula .
kula teyvam (Tm): 1. family deity. 2. lineage deity.
kumbapisekam (Sk). See kumpapisekam .
kumpapisekam (Tm): consecration and purification ceremony for a temple.
kunam (Tm): humoral essence, quality (synonym: guna ).
kuppam (Tm): a sub-natu or territorially bounded subdivision of Pudukottai Kallar lineages (karais ), possibly related to kuppal , meaning "heap, crowd, or company" (cf. teru; vattakai ).
kurippu (Tm): an account book for daily cash transactions.
kuttam (Tm): meeting; crowd; assembly.
kuttikkira pankali (Tm): Nakarattar maximal lineage segment; literally, "shareholders who are brought together" (i.e., for ritual observances).
kuttomb (Tm). See kuttam .
kutumpam (Tm): family.
Labbi (Tel). See Lubbai .
lakh (Hn): a unit of 100 thousand.
Lakshmi (Sk): Vishnu's consort; goddess of wealth.
Lubbai (Tel): Telugu Muslim itinerant trading caste.
Maci (Tm): February-March.
mahanam, mahanadu (Tm): a small revenue division, similar to a taluk .
makimai (Tm): 1. religious tithe. 2. tithe paid to Nakarattar rest house (nakaravituti ).
maniyam (Sk): tax-free land given for services to king or temple (cf. inam ).
mantakappadi (Sk): right to organize a religious ritual.
mantapam (Sk): an open pavilion where religious rituals are performed.
Maravar (Tm): in the precolonial era, a Tamil caste of warriors residing in Ramnad, now comprised primarily of cultivators.
Mariamman (Tm): important village and regional goddess in South India, strongly associated with smallpox, drought, and blindness.
Markali (Tm): December-January.
marrvan nampikkai (Tm): trust.
maruntu kutital (Tm): ritual performed during pregnancy, involving drinking of sacramental water (synonym: tirttam kutittal ).
maryatai (Sk): honor; literally, "boundary."
matam (Sk): monastery, seminary (synonym: atinam ).
Meenakshi (Tm): the goddess of Madurai, an incarnation of Parvati.
melal (Tm): agent of a Nakarattar banking firm.
melvaram (Tm): an agricultural tax in kind; literally, "upper share," meaning the king's or government's share (cf. kilvaram ).
mempanan (Tm): Nakarattar bank's liabilities, deposits other than proprietor's; literally, "surplus funds."
mirasi (Ur): hereditary privileges including shares in land and in temple rituals.
moi (also moy : Dumont 1957b) (Tm): wedding gift from anyone who attends a wedding, registered in a special book (moippana etu ) with reference to kinship distance.
moippana etu (Tm): a book that registers gifts of moi .
mokam (Tm). See moksa .
moksa (Sk): release of soul from cycle of rebirths.
moturpha (Ur): a tax on trade.
muchalika (Ur): legal agreement.
mudal panam (Tm): the proprietor's own capital investment in his firm.
mudalal (Tm): first assistant to the agent (melal ) of Nakarattar firm.
mudali (Tm): principal or proprietor of Nakarattar firm.
Mudaliar (Tm): Vellalar subcaste; literally, "first ones."
Mudukkulattur (Tm): collective name for three warrior castes of Tamil Nadu: the Kallar, Maravar, and Agamudaiyar.
murai (Tm): 1. affinal gifts from wife's family to groom's family, given on a regular basis for the life of a marriage alliance. 2. obligation, turn.
Murugan, Murukan (Tm): Siva's second son, Skanda; other names: Velayuda, Arumukan.
mutal panam (Tm). See mudal panam .
mutalal (Tm). See mudalal .
mutali (Tm). See mudah .
Mutaliar (Tm). See Mudaliar .
nadappu hundi (Tm): interest-bearing bill of exchange that functioned like a check (i.e., it was payable on demand); literally, "walking hundi."
nadappu vatti (Tm): rate of interest between Nakarattars on demand deposits.
Nadar (Tm): a Tamil caste of traders and toddy-tappers, residing primarily in Kanyakumari, Tirunelveli, and Ramnad during the precolonial and colonial periods; presently, its members work and live throughout Tamil Nadu in all walks of business.
nadu (Tm). See natu .
Naganadu (Tm): original legendary home of Nakarattar caste.
nagaram (Tm). See nakaram .
Nagarathar (Tm). See Nakarattar .
nagaswaram (Tm). See nakaswaram .
naivettiyam (Sk): an offering of food, one of sixteen rites of daily worship to a deity.
nakarakkovil (Tm): 1. Nakarattar clan temple. 2. Nakarattar temple-clan.
nakaram (Tm): 1. medieval merchant guild. 2. city.
Nakarattar (Tm): major merchant-banking caste of South India.
nakaravituti (Tm): Nakarattar pilgrim rest house (cf. vituti).
nakaswaram, nakasuram, nakasvaram (Tm): reed instrument played at special functions and rituals.
nanayam (Tm): trustworthiness.
Nangudi Vellalar (Tm): a Vellalar subcaste residing in Tirunelveli.
Nattar (Tm): generally, the leaders of a natu; contrasts with unusual Chettinad usage having just the opposite sense, namely, any non-Nakarattar caste in Chettinad.
nattukkal (Tm): stone marking the site of a deity who protects a specific residential neighborhood.
Nattukottai Chettiar (Tm). See Nakarattar .
natu (Tm): 1. a unit of territory. 2. an agricultural tract. 3. the dominant kin group of a (territorial) natu; e.g., a clan or subcaste among Pudukottai Kallars.
Nayak (Tel): 1. title of a noble or chief; derived from "deputy," i.e., of an emperor. 2. a Telugu caste of warriors.
nerttikkatan (Tm): payment for something given.
olai (Tm): palm leaf; page from a palm-leaf manuscript.
ore kutumpam (Tm): a joint family; literally, "one same family" (cf. valavu).
padaippu (Tm). See pataippu .
paise (Ur): a copper coin valued at 4 to the anna and 64 to the rupee.
palaiyakkarar (Tm): Tamil military chief or "little king" (cf. palaiyam ).
palaiyam (Tm): a domain or "little kingdom" with a military chief.
panam (Tm): 1. a coin. 2. a deposit.
panchayat (Hn): traditionally, a group of five elders who met to resolve disputes or make decisions that affected the welfare of a village or caste.
Pandaram (Tm): Tamil caste of non-Brahman priests and temple officiants.
Pandya (Tm): name of classical and medieval Tamil kingdoms.
Pandyaniadu (Tm): the Pandyan kingdom; literally, "land of the Pandyas."
pangali (Tm). See pankali .
Panganeri Kallar (Tm): Kallar subcaste living near Sivaganga.
Panguni (Tm): March-April.
pankali (Tm): member of agnatic descent group; co-parcener; literally, "shareholder."
pankalis (a composite term, formed from the Tamil root and the English plural morpheme). See pankalikal .
pankalikal (Tm): 1. members of an agnatic descent group. 2. the descent group itself.
panku (Tm): share.
paricam (Tm): "bride price" in some castes.
paripalakkar (Sk): royal protector.
parivara (Sk): joint family.
Parvati (Sk): Siva's wife (see Meenakshi ).
pataippu (Tm): rite of ancestor worship.
patta (Tm). See pattayam.
pattappeyar (Tm): Pudukottai Kallar lineage (literally, "deed name"), used instead of karai when referring to lineages for purposes of marriage.
pattayam (Tm): deed.
pekki pustakam (Tm): ledger of outstanding debts.
pen (Tm): woman.
peredu (Tm): an account book, specifically a general ledger or compilation of subsidiary ledgers.
peretu (Tm). See peredu .
periya (Tm): large, important, older (cf. cinna).
peshkash (Ur): 1. land tax. 2. tribute.
pettai (Tm): 1. a fortified market town. 2. a Nadar caste organization.
pettiyati paiyan (Tm): errand boy.
pettiyadi paiyan (Tm). See pettiyadi paiyan.
pey (Tm): ghost, demon.
Pillaiyar (Tm): elephant-headed son of Siva; other names: Vinayakar, Ganapati, Ganesh.
pirantu itattukkoti (Tm): funerary vevu : a gift of unbleached cloth and ceremonial items for the funeral pyre presented to the decedent by his or her tayatis (i.e., in the case of a deceased man, presented by his wife's father or brothers, and in the case of a deceased woman, by her own father or brothers).
pirasatam (Tm). See prasad .
piratu (Tm): honor, emblem.
pirivu (Tm): segment or division of Nakarattar lineage (kuttikkira pankali).
poligar (AI). See palaiyakkarar.
pollam (AI). See palaiyam .
Pongal (Tm). See Ponkal .
Ponkal (Tm): 1. new year festival in January. 2. sweet rice porridge.
Pramalai Kallar (Tm): a Kallar subcaste living west of Madurai; their name is probably derived from Piranmalai located east of Madurai on the western border of Chettinad.
prasad, prasadam (Sk): sacramental food offered to a deity and redistributed to devotees.
pratiloma (Sk): in an unnatural order; as applied to marriage, an intercaste marriage in which the husband is a member of a lower-ranking caste than the wife (cf. anuloma ).
pucai (Tm). See puja .
Pudukottai Kallar (Tm): a Kallar subcaste residing in Pudukottai.
puja (Sk): worship; religious ceremony.
pulli (Tm): Nakarattar conjugal family; literally, the dot used for reckoning a quantity of goods.
pulli parkka (Tm): to estimate.
pulli vari (Tm): a temple tithe, pulli tax.
purana (Sk): history (synonym: varalaru ).
Purattaci (Tm): September-October.
Purusha (Sk): Hindu mythical first man.
putumai (Tm): rite of first birthday.
raiyat (Ur): landowner, "peasant."
rishi, rsi (Sk): seer, Vedic sage.
ryot (AI). See raiyat .
sahukar (Ur). See soukar .
sami (Tm): god.
sami arai (Tm): shrine in a household.
sami ati (Tm): person possessed by a god.
sangam (Tm): 1. gathering, convocation. 2. a mythical gathering of poets at Madurai.
sastras (Sk): sacred Sanskrit texts.
saukar (Ur). See soukar .
Setupati (Tm): title of the Raja of Ramnad.
shastiaptapurti kalyanam, shastiaptapurti santi kalyanam (Sk): rite of a man's sixtieth birthday.
shreshti (Sk): merchant.
shroff (Ur): non-European merchant and semi-independent guarantee officer for a Ceylon bank.
Siva (Sk): the great deity of Saivite Hindus; the creator and destroyer.
sontha thavanai panam (Tm): accounting category for deposits from the proprietor's relatives; literally, "relative's resting money."
soukar (Ur): native moneylender.
stanikar (Sk): priestly temple manager.
sthula (Sk): gross.
stri dhanam (Sk): dowry; literally, "woman's property"; often mistranslated as cir tanam.
Sudra (Sk): the fourth varna , traditionally comprising servants.
suksma (Sk): subtle.
suppiti (Tm): boy's coming of age ceremony.
tahsildar (Ur): administrator of a taluk .
Tai (Tm): January-February.
takeed, takid (Ur): administrative or government order.
tali (Tm): marriage pendant.
taluk (Ur): a revenue subdivision of a district.
tanatu murai panam (Tm): 1. deposits from business proprietor's agnatic relatives including his lineage (kuttikkira pankali ) and clan (kovil ). 2. deposits from both agnatic kin and unrelated Nakarattars from a business proprietor's own and neighboring villages. 3. umbrella term for all deposits from relatives including accimar panam deposits from inlaws.
tank (AI): a reservoir for water; an artificial lake.
tannir pandal (Tm): shed for distributing water to pilgrims.
tavanai hundi (Tm). See thavanai hundi .
tavanai kanakku (Tm). See thavanai kanakku .
tavanai vatti (Tm). See thavanai vatti .
tayappillaikal (Tm). See tayatikal .
tayati (Tm): 1. member of Nakarattar mother's brother's kuttikkira pankali .
2. Nakarattar member of a lineage segment that was once allied by marriage with one's lineage. 3. among some castes, either descent group of an affinal kindred.
tayatikal (Tm): 1. members of Nakarattar mother's brother's kuttikkira pankali ; the kuttikkira pankali itself. 2. members of any lineage that had once been allied by marriage to one's own lineage or members of such lineages.
tayatis (composite term formed from Tamil root and English plural morpheme). See tayatikal .
teep (Ur). See hundi.
teru (Tm): 1. street. 2. a royal lineage (kuppam ) among the Pudukottai Kallar.
teyvam, teyvata (Tm): village deity.
thanadumaral panam (Tm). See tanatu murai panam .
thandu morai panam (Tm). See tanatu murai panam .
thavanai (Tm): term to maturity of a deposit; literally, "period of rest."
thavanai hundi (Tm): interest-bearing bill of exchange with a minimum specified term to maturity that functioned like a certificate of deposit.
thavanai kanakku (Tm): short-term deposit account of two, three, or six months; literally, a "resting account."
thavanai vatti (Tm): compound rate of interest paid between Nakarattars on term deposits.
tirttam kutittal (Tm). See maruntu kutittal .
tiruvatirai (Tm): girl's coming of age ceremony (cf. suppiti ).
tiruvila (Tm): religious festival.
toddy (AI): fermented sap of the palmyra palm.
tolil (Tm): occupation, livelihood (synonym: jivika).
tolil vilacam (Tm): Nakarattar firm name or firm initials.
Tondaiman (Tm): title of Pudukottai king.
toranam (Tm): leaf-decorated archway used to mark ceremonial occasions.
upachara (Sk): offering or service that is part of worship (puja ).
ur (Tm): village.
uravin murai (Tm): right to renew a marriage alliance between two families.
urimai (Tm): inherited right.
urimai pen (Tm): the woman a man has a right to marry; literally, "rightful woman."
ur vilacam (Tm). See vidu vilacam .
utsavam (Sk): religious festival.
Vaikaci (Tm): May-June.
vaikai (Tm): "circle" or "division" of a large kuttikkira pankali (cf. vattakai ).
vairavi (Tm): temple servant.
Vaisya (Sk): third varna category, traditionally comprising merchants and farmers.
valavu (Tm): 1. Nakarattar joint family or minimal lineage segment. 2. Architectural feature of Nakarattar house: the central courtyard and surrounding residential apartments for the conjugal families of a joint family. 3. a house.
vallan (Tm): generous person.
vallanmai (Tm): generosity.
varakan (Ur): unit of money, Rs. 3.50 (also called a pagoda ).
varalaru (Tm): history; a text in which myths and other traditions are preserved (synonym: purana ).
varavu (Sk): debit or expense entry or account (cf. adhaya ).
varna (Sk): name of the four major status subdivisions of Hindu society; literally, "color."
vattakai (Tm): 1. endogamous subregion of Chettinad (cf. kuppam ). 2. a subdivision of a large lineage (cf. pirivu ); literally, circle.
vatti (Tm): interest.
vatti chitti (Tm): memoranda showing calculated interest.
vayan vatti (Tm): simple interest rate paid by Nakarattars on deposits of non-Nakarattar clients.
vayan vatti kanakku (Tm): accounting category for a deposit from a non-Nakarattar client on which Nakarattars paid simple interest at a fixed rate.
Velayuda (Tm): Lord of the Spear, a manifestation of Murugan.
vellaikkatan panam (Tm): accounting category for deposits from foreigners (Europeans).
Vellalar (Tm): high-ranking Tamil caste, traditionally comprising cultivators and landowners.
ventutal (Tm): something needed.
vevu (Tm): special ceremonial murai given on occasion of life-cycle rituals.
vidu vilacam (Tm). See vitu vilacam .
vidu vilacam (Tm). See vitu vilacam .
Vijayanagar (Tel): a city and empire of South India, 1300-1650 A.D.
vilacam (Tm): initials of a name.
Vinayakar (Tm). See Pillaiyar .
Vishnu (Sk): supreme deity of Vaishnavite Hindus; the Preserver.
vitu (Tm): 1. household. 2. house.
vituti (Tm): pilgrim rest house (synonym: choultry ; cf. Nakaravituti ).
vitu vilacam (Tm): family name, initials of family name (synonym: ur vilacam ; cf. tolil vilacam ).
vivaram (Tm): detail.
yajaman (Sk): sacrifier (in contrast to sacrifier), that is, one who offers the sacrifice (in contrast to a priest who performs a sacrifice).
yattirai (Tm): pilgrimage.
zamin (Ur): a type of landed estate.
zamindar (Ur): title-holder of a zamin .
zamindari (Ur). See zamin .
NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION AND SPELLING OF NON-ENGLISH WORDS
The non-English vocabulary in this study draws on Tamil, Sanskrit, Urdu, and Anglo-Indian sources. Many terms used in written documents vary in their original transcription. In cases where a word occurs in a Tamil document or was spoken by a Tamil informant, I severely modify the translit-eration system of the Madras University Lexicon, stripping terms of diacritical marks that would be useful only for Tamil scholars. In addition, plural forms of these terms, when used in the text rather than mentioned in a quotation from Tamil, are formed by adding the English morpheme's (e.g., panams rather than panankal ). In cases where a word occurs in governmental or other documents from the colonial period, I adopt its most frequent Anglo-Indian spelling. In cases where a word occurs in both contexts, I generally follow the Anglo-Indian conventions, especially with regard to proper names. For variant transcriptions of the terms and for diacritical marks providing a precise indication of non-English orthography or phonology, see the glossary.